Organising Intelligence – Complexity Comes For Free

Organising Intelligence – Complexity Comes For Free

The Organisational Result of Intelligence

Humanity is now entering a period of radical transformation, and recent advancements in technology are providing generative conditions.  However, within one generation, we have become disconnected from ourselves through the use of artificial intelligence. As a result, we have disconnected from our own inborn intelligence. The answer to solving this emerging problem will come from philosophy. 

What If We Don’t Have Enough Dopamine? Part 2

What If We Don’t Have Enough Dopamine? Part 2

In our last article we looked at the two neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine. We also looked at the different types of depression that manifest when one is depleted in one or the other.We also had a look at the nature of substances of addiction and how they interact and interfere with the regulation of dopamine in your brain. In this article we’re going to have a look at what happens to your mind, mood and body when you’re depleted in dopamine.

Latest Research: Toxic input from the meninges primes the brain for migraines

Story at a Glance.

  • Negative input from the dura primes the brain to be too sensitive to triggers that are normally not a problem.
  • It appears that nociceptive input from the meninges causes sensitisation of the dural nociceptive system, and that this dura-nociceptive input and sensitisation causes neuroplasticity and may contribute to migraines.
  • This brings relevance to chiropractic techniques that assess and affect the meninges, and their effect on the brain and its neuroplasticity.

Abstract –

Migraine is one of the most common and most disabling disorders. Between attacks, migraine patients are otherwise normal but are sensitized to nonnoxious events known as triggers. The purpose of these studies was to investigate whether a headache-like event causes sensitization, or priming, to subsequent subthreshold events. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was applied to the rat cranial dura mater which produced cutaneous facial and hind paw allodynia that lasted 24 hours. At 72 hours, IL-6-treated rats developed allodynia in response to dural stimulation with either a pH 6.8 or pH 7.0 solution and to a systemic nitric oxide (NO) donor, a well-known migraine trigger. Vehicle-treated rats did not respond to either pH stimulus or to the NO donor, demonstrating that IL-6 exposure primes rats to subthreshold stimuli. Inhibitors of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling given either systemically or intracisternally 24 hours after IL-6 eliminated responses to dural pH stimulation at 72 hours. Additionally, intracisternal administration of BDNF without previous dural stimulation produced allodynia and once resolved, animals were primed to dural pH 6.8/pH 7.0 and a systemic NO donor. Finally, hind paw IL-6 produced paw allodynia but not priming to paw injection of pH 7.0 at 72 hours demonstrating differences in priming depending on location.

These data indicate that afferent input from the meninges produces BDNF-dependent priming of the dural nociceptive system. This primed state mimics the interictal period of migraine where attacks can be triggered by normally nonnoxious events and suggests that BDNF-dependent plasticity may contribute to migraine.

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27841839
Pain. 2016 Dec;157(12):2722-2730

Chronic Pain: Is It Body Or Brain?

Chronic Pain: Is It Body Or Brain?

It will come as no surprise to chiropractors (or indeed any health-care practitioner) that an alarming number of adults in the western world are chronic pain sufferers. It’s a problem that comes in many forms, from tangible disorders like back pain to more mysterious issues like fibromyalgia, but it usually results in a couple of predictable things: painkillers, and frustration as many chronic pain sufferers are told ‘its all in your head.’

Depression Theory Faces Scrutiny: Could It Be An Immune System Issue?

Depression Theory Faces Scrutiny: Could It Be An Immune System Issue?

For a long time, the prevailing theory regarding depression held that it was a brain issue to do with serotonin. The treatment – SSRI medication (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Yet this theory is facing increasing scrutiny with experts such as New York Psychiatrist and author, Dr Kelly Brogan, proposing that it may instead be an immune system issue.

The Neuroscience Behind Carrying Babies Keeps Them Calm

The Neuroscience Behind Carrying Babies Keeps Them Calm

Countless tired parents across the globe know the story. Walking around for hours on end, patting their over tired baby, trying to get them off to sleep. Then ever so gently lowering them into the cot only for them to open their eyes, wide-awake to start crying again!

Ahh the sheer frustration!

Cognitive Science Can Tell Us Why We Repeat Mistakes

Cognitive Science Can Tell Us Why We Repeat Mistakes

If you want to avoid repeating history, its best not to try and learn from it [1].” That might seem like a counterintuitive statement, but as researchers look into the cognitive science behind why we repeat mistakes, it seems to be the conclusion they are arriving at

Addicted to Coffee? New Study Shows It May Be In Your Genes.

Addicted to Coffee?  New Study Shows It May Be In Your Genes.

Coffee, why is it that some people can take it or leave it? And others couldn’t imagine the start of their day without it? That ubiquitous, espresso brew has people world over obsessed with it. As it turns out, it may not simply be a love affair of the heart; it may be in your genes.

An Apple A Day May Make Your Baby Smarter

An Apple A Day May Make Your Baby Smarter

We’ve all heard the saying about apples but there may be more truth in the expression than first suspected. Women who eat fruit during their pregnancy have been shown to have smarter kids. Who knew by scoffing back a few extra bananas you could have such a positive affect?

Mirror Neurons: The Great Connector

Mirror Neurons: The Great Connector

An emerging area of study spiking interest across the globe is the brain and how it constructs reality. How does the brain, essentially a lump of tissue in the body, construct meaning, ponder the wonders of the universe, learn, manage the functions of the body and communicate with the world around us?

Some time ago, researchers in Italy discovered a group of neurons in the frontal lobe called mirror neurons. As research advances in this area, the discovery is shedding light on how skills are developed and how empathy works on a neuronal level.

People Who Pick Up Accents Easily Are Nicer People

Accents. Ever notice how easy it is for some people to pick them up? Ten minutes in New York and an Australian voice is already adopting the American drawl. Or traipsing around London and you find yourself starting to articulate the ends of your words in a more precise way?

New Study: Dyslexics Have Reduced Capacity To Adapt To Sensory Input

New Study: Dyslexics Have Reduced Capacity To Adapt To Sensory Input

Scientist have been rubbing their foreheads in frustration over dyslexia, trying to find the underlying cause for dyslexics’ reading difficulties. But it’s not just dysfunction with reading that individuals with dyslexia present, they also frequently show behavioural deficits in perceptual adaptation. Or what neuroscientists call ‘rapid neural adaption’.

Epigenetic “Memory” Gene Process Of Worms, Could Be Similar In Humans

Epigenetic “Memory” Gene Process Of Worms, Could Be Similar In Humans

Epigenetics is the study of biological mechanisms that switch inherited genes on and off. The theory is that our own personal life experiences, or for that matter, those of our parents and our parent’s parents, are passed onto subsequent generations. Studies done on survivors from traumatic events, particularly events as catastrophic as ones such as the Holocaust have shown that exposure to stress have a follow-on effect on subsequent generations1. That is, the memory of these events is lived on through our progeny. Their DNA is impacted by the trauma as much as if they’d experienced it themselves.

But the question that has confounded scientists is how are these genetic “memories” passed on?

Chiropractic Care and the Management of ADHD

Chiropractic Care and the Management of ADHD

ADHD… If you don’t know a kid who’s been diagnosed with it, you’re in the minority. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most controversial topics in child behaviour today. Firstly, there’s the hotly debated question over its actual existence. Followed by the heavily contested views over the medical treatment employed to manage it – the use of psychotropic drugs treating children. We covered this topic at length here.

Criticising Others Impairs Cognitive Ability

Criticising Others Impairs Cognitive Ability

It’s hard not to jump in and tell someone when they’re doing something wrong. But it appears there is a difference between explaining an error and just being down right rude. In a recent study1, researchers have found that putting people down actually impairs their cognitive abilities and in fact, makes their performance worse.

People Who Don’t Like Music Are Neurologically Different

People Who Don’t Like Music Are Neurologically Different

You only have to ask someone like Jerry Maguire, driving his car, flicking through the radio stations searching for just the right song, how important music is. Music when it hits that sweet spot makes your foot tap and your heart sing. It makes you want to jump up and dance, or sing loudly out of tune. Music can bring out the depths of your sadness and trigger long lost memories. It can make you laugh or it can touch your soul. Music has been prevalent in all human cultures since we first started scratching flint together to make flames. But music, unlike other biological advantages is not associated with advancement of our species or of our survival. That is, it’s not like food or water or sex or shelter. And it doesn’t have any utility value such as money. But music ranks as one of human beings greatest sources of pleasure. Because of this there has been an assumption that the pleasure gained from music is universal. And is therefore experienced by all humans. But it’s not.  

Are Altruistic People Wired Differently? (Part 1 of 2)

Are Altruistic People Wired Differently? (Part 1 of 2)

Why are some people more compassionate than others? What makes one person altruistic and another self serving? Well, perhaps not surprisingly, the answer lies in our brains. To be precise the answer lies in our amygdala. The amygdala sits in the temporal lobe of your brain, under the temporal bone, which is roughly behind your ear. If you were to draw a line from the centre of your eye going into your brain and one from the centre of your ear also going into your brain, where those two lines intersect, you’ll find your amygdala.

How Crawling and Manual Object Exploration are Related to the Mental Rotation Abilities of 9-Month-Old Infants - Research overview

This study examined whether the mental rotation ability of infants was affected by their abilities to crawl and manually explore objects. There were 48, 9-month old infants recruited for this study with half of them having been crawling for an average of 9.3 weeks.

Motor Milestones & Brain Development

Motor Milestones & Brain Development

As children grow, they need healthy and appropriate sensory motor experiences to support vibrant brain development which ultimately forms who they are as human beings. The way our children develop their motor skills can give us an insight into how their brains are dynamically developing, as ‘mindness is the internalization of movement’ (Llinas 2001).  The brain is the most underdeveloped organ at birth, with the most rapid growth occurring in the first two years of life. During this time the brain needs sensory motor experiences to stimulate healthy growth. We are able to promote this growth in our practices and at home from birth.   When looking at a child’s movement it is important to assess whether the movement is appropriate for their age, whether it is coordinated and smooth, and if there are signs of good motor planning (Keating, G., & Keating, R. 2014). The recommended windows of motor milestones are wide, with each child developing uniquely. It is important to understand that children are supposed to reach each of these milestones; including rolling, crawling, sitting and of course, walking. Children with developmental challenges will have different time frames in which they will reach their milestones, however it is always important to encourage good sensory motor input to support dynamic brain growth in all children. When we question parents about their children’s motor development, common responses include that their child was either delayed in reaching a motor milestone or they skipped it, or it didn’t develop smoothly or typically. It doesn’t have to be this way.

Delays in Motor Development in Children with Down Syndrome - Research Overview

The aim of this study was to determine the motor abilities in children with Down syndrome and examine which areas are significantly delayed. This study also assessed functional balance as a feature of quality of movement. A small sample size of 79 children were recruited and divided into groups according to:

  • age: <3 years old, 3-6 years old, >6 years old and
  • motor impairment rating scale: mild, moderate and severe.

All children attended physical therapy sessions once per week for 2 years. The aim of these sessions were to:

  • develop psychomotor abilities
  • assist with the development of quality motor function
  • normalise muscle tone.
  • train balance reaction and
  • postural maintenance

Children were assessed using the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) and body balance was estimated by Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). "There was no control as the original validation sample of GMFM-88 included children aged from 5 months to 16 years, so the score of GMFM-88 is the percentage of the score of the original validation group."

The results of the present study revealed none of the children with Down syndrome, in the group aged 3-6 years old developed 100% of the motor functions as evaluated by GMFM-88 (Typical development by 5 years is when all GMFM-88 functions are developed). The ability to stand upright was achieved in 95% of children in this study at 3 - 6 years, however only 10% of children <3 years were able to stand. The researchers discussed how standing position is achieved after acquiring postural alignment between the head, torso and hip and this may be difficult for children with Down Syndrome because it engages trunk flexors and extensors and these muscle synergies may often be hypotonic. Walking developed later in infants with Down Syndrome than typically developing infants. Most children included in this study began walking when they were 3 years and older. The authors suggested this delay may be a result of their poor balance (cerebellar hypoplasia), joint laxity and hypotonia.

The aim of care in children with Down syndrome should be to help improve functional balance, postural alignment, muscle tone and symmetry. This may assist with minimizing delays in motor abilities that are developed in childhood.

Written by Carla Vescio, Chiropractor