Research Overview - Oral Health & Oral Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

The data was statistically analyzed using chi-square tests. In 73.1% of the sample, the subjects’ caregivers carried out the daily oral care. There was a significant association between the frequency of daily care and the subject’s level of oral hygiene. A diagnosis of Class II malocclusion was made for 55.8% of the sample, and defects of enamel formation were found in 38.5% of the subjects. There was no significant correlation between decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and socioeconomic status of the subjects. A significant association was found between quadriplegia and OMF.

Most subjects had moderate to severe oral motor dysfunction and subjects who were quadriplegic had more severe oral motor dysfunction. The level of oral motor impairment did not correlate with the level of oral health in patients with CP. This could be because their oral hygiene was carried out by their caregivers. Most children with CP in this study had a DMFT lower than 2 and had access to regular OHI. The greater the frequency of oral hygiene, the better was their oral hygiene index. The type of CP was not related to differences in caries or plaque indices, diet type, or frequency of tooth-brushing. Among the defects in formation of enamel, opacity was more common among patients with CP, although the prevalence was not high and there was no relationship between the prevalence of dental enamel defects and the degree of general motor impairment or the type of CP.

Overall, these results indicate the type of CP and OMF did not influence the levels of plaque and caries indices in the children with CP, however, increased frequency of tooth brushing did result in an improved oral hygiene index. 

Review by Emily Haylock-Jordan, Chiropractor

de Carvalho, R.B., Mendes, R.F., Prado, R.R., & Moita Neto, J.M. 2011. Oral Health and oral motor function in children with cerebral palsy. Special care in dentistry, 31(2), 58-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-4505.2011.00180.x

Relationship Amoung Oral Habits, Orofacial Function & Oral Health Related Quality of Life in Chilren

This study evaluated the relationship among oral habits, oral function and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children. Three hundred and twenty-eight subjects (8–14 years old) were assessed for orofacial function using the Brazilian version of the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) protocol, which consisted of a structured interview and clinical examination.  OHRQoL was assessed using the Child Perceptions Questionnaires (Brazilian versions) for the 8–10 and 11–14 year age groups. The subjects were distributed into a Habit group and a Habit-free group according to domain III (Habits) of the NOT-S. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 9.0 software (SPSS, Chicago, USA) with a 5% significance level.

What the researchers found was that oral habits were present in 71.3% of the sample, with a higher prevalence in females (62.8%). The NOT-S, CPQ scores were higher in the Habit group. Domain I (Sensory Function) was significantly more affected in Habit group subjects. The NOT-S scores were positively correlated with the CPQ scores indicating the influence of orofacial dysfunctions on OHRQoL, only in the Habit group.
Overall, the result of this particular study indicate that oral habits can impact OHRQoL Children and adolescents. The Habit group presented more orofacial dysfunction and higher impacts on OHRQoL than the Habit-Free group. More-over, the presence of orofacial dysfunctions was associated with worse OHRQoL in subjects with oral habits. 

Review by Emily Haylock-Jordan, Chiropractor

Leme, M.S., Souza Barbosa, T.D., & Gavião, M.B. 2013. Relationship amoung oral habits, orofacial function and oral health-related quality of life in children. Brazillian Oral Research. 21(3), 272-8. doi: 10.1590/S1806-83242013000300006.